Anatomy. Disorders of Swallowing

Disorders of Swallowing : A: Disorders of Swallowing Paralysis of Swallowing Mechanism Whenever 5 th ,9 th . And 10 th . cranial nerve damage it causes paralysis of swallowing center in brain stem. Disorders of Swallowing : Disorders of Swallowing Paralysis of Swallowing occur in: Poliomyelitis or encephalitis Muscle dystrophy Failure of neuro -muscular transmission ( as in myasthenia Gravis) A: Disorders of Swallowing : A: Disorders of Swallowing The most serious paralysis of swallowing mechanism occur, when person is under deep anesthesia.

Often, he vomit large quantities of gastric contents into pharynx, but instead of swallowing he suck this material into trachea, because anestheic blocks the reflex mechanism of swallowing B: Disorders of Esophagus: B: Disorders of Esophagus Achalasia: It is a condition in which lower few centimeter of esophagus fail to relax during swallowing mechanism. In the result of this food transmission impeded. B: Disorders of Esophagus: B: Disorders of Esophagus This condition occur due to demage of myentric plexuses in lower portion of esophagus Causes of Achalasia : Achalasia:: Achalasia:

C: Disorders of Stomach : C: Disorders of Stomach Gastritis Means inflammation of gastric mucosa. This can occur due to the action of irritant food on gastric mucosa. C: Disorders of Stomach : C: Disorders of Stomach Causes of Gastritis The irritation of gastric mucosa by: i. Alcohol ii. Aspirin iii. Too much secretion of HCl C: Disorders of Stomach: C : Disorders of Stomach In gastritis, patient feel pain in stomach as well as burning sensation in his throat. C: Disorders of Stomach: C: Disorders of Stomach Gastric Atrophy In many person who have chronic gastritis, the gastric mucosa gradually atrophic.

It is also believed that gastric atrophy also occurs in those person who develop autoimmunity against gastric mucosa. C: Disorders of Stomach: C: Disorders of Stomach Achlor-hyderia OR Hypochlorhydria. In this condition stomach fail to secrete HCl. When HCl not secreted, the pepsinogen is not activated which impaired the Protein digestion. Secretion of intrinsic factor also affected. C: Disorders of Stomach: C: Disorders of Stomach Iv. Peptic Ulcer It is excoriated area of mucosa. It may occur in duodenum, called duodenal ulcer It may occur in the antral end of stomach called Gastric /Peptic Ulcer.

Iv. Peptic Ulcer: Iv. Peptic Ulcer C: Disorders of Stomach: C: Disorders of Stomach Causes Of Peptic Ulcer: The cause of peptic ulcer are: Too much secretion of gastric juice containing HCl. Lack of mucus secretion. Lack of sodium bicarbonate. If person ingest aspirin or alcohol frequently. C: Disorders of Stomach: C: Disorders of Stomach Treatmrnt Of Peptic Ulcer/ duodenal ulcer The usual medical treatment includes. The diet should not contain alcohol. Diet should be given six or more time/day instead of large 3 meals. Treatment Of Peptic Ulcer/ duodenal ulcer :

Treatment Of Peptic Ulcer/ duodenal ulcer In case of duodenal ulcer, diet should contain large quantity of fat. Fat decrease gastric secretion. Administration on antacid drug Stressful situation should be avoided D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine Duodenal Ulcer Stone in gall bladder . When stones develop in gall bladder, they block the passage bile and prevent the fat absorption. D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine Pancreatitis ( Means inflammation of Pancrease. ) 2 Types: Acute Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatits

D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine Acute pancreatits occur due to blockage of Papilla of vater by gallstone or carcinoma. Chronic pancreatitis occur in similar manner but progress slowly. D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine iv Regional Entritis : Regional entritis means inflammation of terminal portion of ileum. Cause of regional entritis is unknown. It causes crampy pain. D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine v. Appendicitis: Appendicitis means inflammation of appendix.

Appendix is usually caused by infection. Causes crampy pain referred to mid abdomen. D: Disorders of Small Intestine: D: Disorders of Small Intestine vi. CELIAC DISEASE An immune system disorder that targets the small intestine. The immune system mistakes gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, barley and oats) causing inflammation in the small intestine. E: Disorders of Large Intestine: E: Disorders of Large Intestine Constipation Mega colon Diarrhea Entritis Ulcerative colitis E: Disorders of Large Intestine: E: Disorders of Large Intestine CROHN’S DISEASE A n inflammatory bowel disease.

Not restricted to either the large or small intestine, it can occurs at any point in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. E: Disorders of Large Intestine: E: Disorders of Large Intestine COLON POLYPS C ommonly arise in the large intestine. They’re typically non-cancerous, but can develop into colon cancer Disorders of Large Intestine: Disorders of Large Intestine DIVERTICULAR DISEASE C an affect both the large and small intestine. more common in the large intestine. occurs when pouches develop in the when pouches develop in the intestinal wall. Disorders of Large Intestine:

Disorders of Large Intestine INTESTINAL PARASITES I nclude roundworms and tape worms , which can grow to great lengths in the intestines. Disorders of Large Intestine: Disorders of Large Intestine IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME A ffects the large intestine, causing colon muscles to contract too much. IBS results in cramping of the large intestine, gas, constipation. Disorders of Large Intestine: Disorders of Large Intestine ULCERATIVE COLITIS A n inflammatory bowel disease. Although it can develop throughout the intestines, ulcerative colitis is often limited to the large intestine