Cja 304 Week 1

Communication enables human beings to interact in a meaningful way. It is hence a vital component of coming up with the meanings of situations so as to derive the intended conclusions. According to Schwartz (2001), communication can be said to be the process that involves the sending and receipt of messages of information among individuals. The communication process consists of two things.It involves the sending and receipt of a message. The message sent and received can be classified into two broad categories. These categories include non-verbal and verbal messages. The communication process includes a number of components which include the symbolic, non-verbal as well as verbal components. Verbal components of communication include what can be heard by the human ear, that is, information that can be conveyed and received by the receiver by listening.The non verbal components of communication include gestures, facial expressions as well as voice tone. Lastly, we have the symbolic component. It includes the use of symbols and signs in communication as opposed to verbal and non verbal ways to communicate. According to Hartley et al. (2002), listening involves the allocation of meaning to cues of a verbal nature. He says that unlike listening, hearing is an ability that we possess naturally.For us to listen effectively, we must process some inherent listening skills and practice them from time to time. Hearing which takes place when our ears pick up sounds at specific frequencies can hence be said to be a manifestation of listening. An active participation in the communication process results in the ability to listen and listening can in itself is grouped into five distinct processes which include; receipt, attendance, ability to understand, initiative to respond, and ability to remember.In criminal justice systems, formal relationships initiate the establishment of channels of formal communication. Other things that establish the formal communication channels in this case include procedures and assignments as well as various jobs descriptions. It is important t note here that these channels go hand in hand with established authority lines laid down in accordance with the Organization’s standard operating procedures and organizational charts in place. In criminal justice organizations, formal communication is a standard set for all.Informal communication channels in criminal justice systems and organizations thrive just as well as formal communication systems. Though not highly desired as they are in most cases marred by inaccuracies and inconsistencies, eliminating them absolutely is impossible and distortion is mainly minimized by setting up a system of checks and balances. A Schwartz (2001) note that there exist a number of barriers to effective communication that may cause the intended receiver of the message not to receive the message as it was intended by the sender.These barriers include; this includes instances where the sender may send a message in a language not understood by the intended receiver. Other issues related t language includes accent as well as semantic differences between the sender and the receiver where words containing different meanings but same pronunciations lead to different interpretations. Cultural Barriers: These are the various aspects which can separate the sender from the intended receiver and hence create a barrier to communication.These aspects include motives, gender, age, social status etc. These barriers are found in the organizational setting and they can be broadly divided into barriers from employees and barriers from employers. Barriers from employees are low levels of motivation, refusal to cooperate as well as strained relationships with he employer. On the other hand, barriers from employers include inadequate trust in their workers, inadequate knowledge of clues of a nonverbal nature such as posture as well as facial expressions etc.For effective communication to take place, the listener can enhance his listening skills. Fully developed listening skills guarantee the successful receipt of the message that is heard (Schwartz 2001). Another way of enhancing effective communication includes avoiding multiple communication channels and doing away with the various intermediaries. Other strategies as Schwartz (2001) notes include the elimination of semantic noise and words that may initiate miscommunication.In the organizational setting, communication barriers can eliminated by coming up or designing a highly flexible organizational structure that is more transparent as well as dynamic. It is clear that effective communication is only possible with the elimination of the various barriers. Organizations should ensure that these barriers are addressed so as to ensure that the communication process is not interrupted at any point.Reference Schwartz, A. E. (2001). Communication Skills. Andrew E Schwartz Co. [pic] Hartley, P. , ; Bruckmann, C. G. (2002). Business communication. Routledge[pic]