Essentials of Psychology

The topic I have chosen to discuss is the role that media violence plays in aggression in children specifically as related to Bandura’s experiment. Bandura conducted an experiment an experiment known as the Bobo doll. In the study, young children saw a film of an adult wildly hitting a five-foot- tall inflatable punching toy called a Bobo doll (Bandura A. , Ross, & Ross, 1963a, 1963b) Later the children were given the opportunity to play with the Bobo doll themselves and sure enough most displayed the same kind of behavior, in some cases mimicking the aggressive behavior almost identically.

The participants for the experiment were 36 boys and 36 girls enrolled at the Stanford University Nursery School. The children ranged in age between 3 and almost 6 years, and the average participant age was 4 years 4 months. There were a total of eight experimental groups. Out of these participants, 24 were assigned to a control group that received no treatment. The rest of the children were then divided into two groups of 24 participants each.

One of the experimental groups was then exposed to aggressive models, while the other 24 children were exposed to non-aggressive models. Finally, these groups were divided again into groups of boys and girls. Each of these groups was then divided so that half of the participants were exposed to a same-sex adult model and the other half was exposed to an opposite-sex adult model. Before conducting the experiment, Bandura also assessed the children’s existing levels of aggression.

Groups were then matched equally so that they had an average level of aggression. No, I don’t agree nor believe that the media is fully to blame. Partially yes, but not fully, because I believe, the primary purpose of the Media is to serve human beings by rendering to them true facts, but currently Media Violence is adversely affecting the young generation. In reality, prohibiting Media Violence has now almost become impossible for anyone.

Possessed by the demon of profit making the world of media is gradually running towards its doom. To survive in the dilemmatic economic conditions media has incorporated violence, sex, and other modes of attraction to earn money. But what’s pathetic is that, this sort of efforts on the part of the media has been thoroughly supported by a considerable number of audiences. So what is really aggression? Aggression, whether on the playground or the battlefield, is arguably the world’s reatest problem. For example, Brad Bushman and Craig Anderson have been looking at the ways in which violent video games may result in heightened violence on the part of those who play games. They have found that people who play such games have an altered view of the world, seeing it as a more violent place. OR are they are more apt to respond with aggression to others even when provoked only minimally (Bushman ; Anderson, 2001, 2002; Crawford, 2002; Konijn, Bijvank, ; Bushman, 2007).

In November, during an NBA game between the Pacers and the Pistons, five players and seven Fans were charged with assault after a brawl instigated by a thrown cup of beer. From the security cameras that were present, the incident highlights how quickly aggression can escalate. OR we can look at it like this Free will versus determinism that is another key issue how much of a person’s behavior is free will and they are acting out in aggression because they want to, and how much is determinism?

People who act out in aggression with a notion that their aggression and behavior is beyond their control has been an issue long debated by philosophers the free-will/ determinism is also central to the field of psychology (Dennett, 2003; Cary, 2007. (Page 21) To support my claim and point of view that media is not to blame, Albert Bandura (Page 186) says “Not only negative behaviors are acquired through observational learning.

In one experiment, for example, children who were afraid of dogs were exposed to a model dubbed the fearless peer playing with a dog (Bandura, Grusec, ; Menlove, 1967. After exposure, observers were considerably more likely to approach a strange dog than were children who had not viewed the fearless peer”, Given that little evidence links media violence to serious physical aggression, bullying or youth violence, 1 at present most of the debate appears to focus on whether media violence may have an impact on more minor forms of aggressiveness.

At present, no consensus has been reached on this issue. For example in 1974 the US Surgeon General testified to congress that “the overwhelming consensus and the unanimous Scientific Advisory Committee’s report indicates that televised violence, indeed, does have an adverse effect on certain members of our society. ” American Psychological Society” However, by 2001, the US Surgeon General’s office, The Department of Health and Human Services had largely reversed itself, relegating media violence to only a minor role and noting many serious limitations in the research.

The Department of Health and Human Services Studies, have also disagreed regarding whether media violence contributes to desensitization. Ramos, Raul (2013),” Desensitization comfortably numb or just yet another movie? Media violence exposure does not reduce viewer empathy for victims of real violence among primarily Hispanic viewers Psychology of Popular Media Culture. I do understand that not everyone will agree with my claims.

Some may disagree what I have said and proved through research regarding the role that media violence plays a role in aggression in children but it’s just my opinion just as some scientist don’t agree with me either and have made their own conclusions and theories such as: Regarding “third” variables, media violence researchers acknowledge that other variables may play a role in aggression (Bushman & Anderson, 2001) and that aggression is due to a confluence of variables.

These variables are known as “third variables” and if found, would probably be mediator variables (which differ from moderator variables). A mediator variable could ‘explain away’ media violence effects, whereas a moderator variable cannot. For instance, some scholars contend that trait aggressiveness has been demonstrated to moderate media violence effects (Bushman), although in some studies “trait aggression” does appear to account for any link between media violence exposure and aggression.

Other variables have also been found to moderate media violence effects (Bushman & Geen, 1990). Another issue is the way in which experimental studies deal with potential confounding variables. Researchers use random assignment to attempt to neutralize the effects of what commonly are cited as third variables (i. e. gender, trait aggressiveness, & preference for violent media). Because experimental designs employ random assignment to conditions, the effect of such attributive variables on experimental results is assumed to be random (not systematic).

However, the same can’t be said for correlational studies, and failure to control for such variables in correlational studies limits the interpretation of such studies. Often, something as simple as gender proves capable of “mediating” media violence effects. Regarding aggression, the problem may have less to do with the definition of aggression, but rather how aggression is measured in studies, and how aggression and violent crime are used interchangeably in the public eye. Much of the debate on this issue seems to revolve around ambiguity regarding hat is considered a “small” effect. Media violence researchers contend that effect sizes noted in media violence effects are similar to those found in some medical research which is considered important by the medical community (Bushman & Anderson, 2001), although medical research may suffer from some of the same interpretational flaws as social science. This argument has been challenged as based on flawed statistics, however (Block & Crain, 2007). Block & Crain (2007) recently found that social scientists (Bushman & Anderson, 2001) had been miscalculating some medical effect sizes.

The interpretation of effect size in both medical and social science remains in its infancy. More recently, media violence experts have acknowledged that societal media consumption and violent crime rates are not well associated, but claim that this is likely due to other variables that are poorly understood. However, this effect remains poorly explained by current media violence theories, and media violence researchers may need to be more careful not to retreat to an falsifiable theory – one that cannot be disproven (Freedman, 2002).

Researchers argue that violent acts seen on television compared to that in the real world are huge. One study looked at the frequency of crimes occurring in the real world compared with the frequency of crimes occurring in the following reality-based TV programs: America’s Most Wanted, Cops, Top Cops, FBI, The Untold Story and American Detective, (Oliver, 1994). The types of crimes were divided into two categories, violent crimes and non-violent crimes. 7% of crimes occurring in the real world are non-violent crimes, whereas only 13% of crimes occurring on TV are considered non-violent crimes. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2001) Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts VS Media Misinformation. American Psychologist However, this discrepancy between media and real-life crimes may arguably dispute rather than support media effects theories If you were to look up Albert Bandura, you will see that not all violence comes from media it also comes from observational warning from other people and parents.

To what extent is media violence related to aggressive and violent behavior? Media violence and aggression comes from all sources and people as well as observational learning when we are dealing with young children, adolescents, teens, and sometimes even adults. Going to counseling will help, our children are our future and the best protectors should start at Home, so they can be productive in the world when they become adults. Because of what wrong Behavior was learned as a child.

So do the media and video games create violence I would say? No, because even some scientist disagree I don’t think that we will ever have a correct or wrong answer all we can do is give our opinion, our children watch and mimic everything that we do. Be a positive role model. Psychology and your life, Robert S. Feldman http://tinyurl. com/6t2jnul http://tinyurl. com/mx7ay http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Media_violence_research#Researchers. 27_response_to_criticisms