Global health

Towards a safer global health, the issue of public health ranks highest amidst worries of the medical researchers owing to the huge threat poses to eradicating the entire genealogy of mankind. Infectious diseases rank the leading cause of world death in the 21st century while same disease top the third leading pandemic in the United States of America. The question of bioterrorism is raised in some consequential reports of certain chemical deposition to certain African countries, the depositions which containing viruses of the prevailing world bio-threat account for the suggestion. Since 1970s, the retroviral disease has been on rampage in Africa but not until 1983 when the United States began the arrest of the debilitating HIV/AIDS diseases that the world sigh a relief. Owing to gradual laxity in global health security and poor economic buoyancy of inflicting nations, the issue of public health is rather not gaining optimal attention. Researchers of prevailing diseases declare that “the world is perpetually faced with risk of unprecedented disease outbreaks, epidemics, industrial accidents, natural disasters and other hazardous emergencies, the disease exposure subject the globe to a state of public health insecurity (WHO World Health Report, 2007).” It becomes heinous since the prevailing public health threat is no respecter of economic status or regional distribution, it freely crosses border.Over 40 diseases were reported in the last three decades of the 21st century. About 1200 cases of epidemic were equally reported with causative organism often interconnected with the earlier findings. Severe Acute Respiratory distress syndrome SARS is one of the leading infectious threat to public health. SARS first appeared in November of 2002 in the Guangdong Province of China and subsequently spread to Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, and Toronto, where large outbreaks also occurred. The ease of travel between continents clearly contributed to this pandemic. Between fall of 2002 and spring of 2003, there were more than 8,000 cases of SARS, including 774 deaths. After an incubation period of 2 to 10 days, SARS begins with a dry cough, malaise, myalgias, fever and chills.Although the virus was effectively contained about four month later, it dropped record of about 15,000 got infected with economic loss of 61 billion USD. An estimated number of 2.2 billion airborne travelers are constantly at risk of the disease following the findings in 2006. SARS is caused by a member of order of  coronavirus. The virus  pathophysiology (how the body react to cause the health hazard) of SARS virus is not yet understood by the scientist and clinicians, nor is it known why the virus moved from animals to humans as against other non-human virus who possibly have no effect on man. As compared to other atypical pneumonias caused, SARS less commonly gives rise to symptoms related to the upper respiratory tract such as sore throat. A third of infected patients improve and resolve the infection, but the rest progress to severe respiratory disease with shortness of breath, tachypnea, and pleurisy and patients die from the illness, for which there is no specific treatment.As at present in the 21st century, varying species of Avian Flu is the most dreaded public health nuisance to the globe. Avian flu, groups of influenza viruses that typically infect and are spread among birds. All avian influenza strains that cause severe disease- in birds are the H5 and H7 subtypes. Worldwide, wild birds—particularly migrating aquatic birds like ducks or geese—often carry mild bird flu viruses and never become ill. If passed to domesticated birds—like chickens and turkeys—they sometimes change, or “mutate,” to a more pathogenic form.  Since 2003, there have been over 170 cases of human infection among people working in close contact with infected domesticated birds in Asia. The dreading is owing to the fact that the disease is non-healing. Some argue of the particular strain of the virus because they share believe that such virus hardly cross from bird species to human. According to the WHO, in the first 175 cases of bird-to-human transmission of H5N1, there were 96 deaths.