Human Resource Management

Q1. Define Human resource planning (HRP). Explain the objectives and process of HRP? to Human resource planning is the process that links the human resource needs of an organization to its strategic plan ensure that staffing is sufficient, qualified, and competent enough to achieve the organization’s objectives. The objectives of HRM can be classified as : It helps in responding to any Resistance to change. Increases investment in terms of Human Resource. It determines the future Personnel needs.

It is the process by which management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. An Outline to Human Resource Planning To ensure optimum use of existing Human Resource To forecast future requirement of Human Resource To provide control measures to ensure that necessary Human Resource is available as and when required To assess the surplus and shortage of HR. To provide direction to all HR activities and systems To unite the prospective of line managers and staff.

To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and HR To determine the cost of HR To determine the level of Recruitment and Training To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programs Q2. What are the factors affecting recruitment? What are the sources of recruitment? FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT: Internal factors: Internal factors Recruitment policy: The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment rogrammes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people 2. Human resource planning : Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization . It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess. 3. Size of the firm : If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations. 4.

Growth and expansion : Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding it’s operations. 5. Cost : Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate. External Factors Supply and demand : The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process . Labor market : Employment condition in the community where the org is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. . Image / goodwill : An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image . 4. Political-social-legal environment : Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. 5. Unemployment : When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment . 6.

Competitors : To face the competition, many a times the organizations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors. The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources consisting of the following: Internal sources of Recruitment: 1. Present Permanent Employees :  Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources, to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate  the present employees. . Present temporary/casual Employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job. 3. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation, trade union pressure etc. 4. Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, retired and present employees: Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members. . Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. External Sources of Recruitment 1 Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co; from their college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. 2 Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees.      Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. 4     Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm.      Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes, candidates etc and feed them in the computer. 6     Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities, level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.      Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. 8     Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. 9     Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment.

Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. 10    Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head hunters are also called search consultants. 11  Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take over help in getting human resources.

In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on ad-hoc basis. 12  E_recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the World Wide Web (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. 13  Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them.

These organizations do not utilize the human resources; instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. Q3. What are the main objectives of training? Explain on-the job and off the job training? Training is an essential part of the orientation programme for new recruits in an organization, it enhances the skills and capabilities of employees. Objectives of training are: Improving employee performance Updating employee skills Avoiding managerial obsolescence Preparing for promotion and managerial succession Retaining and motivating employees

Creating an efficient and effective organization. On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Training Methods: The major differences between these two training methodologies have been listed here: On-the-Job training involves imparting training in the real work environment i. e. it believes in learning by doing; while off-the-job training involves imparting training outside the real work environment i. e. the principle of learning by acquiring knowledge is adopted. Under on-the-job training the training and performance goes simultaneously so production is not hindered at the time of training; while under off-the-job raining methods first training is imparted and then the real performance follows and therefore does not add anything to actual production during training. On-the-job training aims at developing the best practices for a specific job and getting the job done; while off-the-job training methods aim at learning basic facts and skills and is more general in nature. On-the-job training is usually imparted by experienced workers and first line supervisors at the workplace; while off-the-job training is imparted usually by the academicians and professionals at any place other than the real workplace.

On-the-job training methods are suitable when the trainees are limited in numbers and the job is not hazardous in nature; while off-the-job training methods can be utilized to train any numbers of employees and for jobs that involve risks. On-the-job training methods are simple and less-expensive because they utilize the actual workplace and firm’s supervisors for imparting training; while off-the-job training methods are quite expensive as they need a complete different set-up. Training here is imparted in an artificial set-up and outside experts are hired for the purpose.

Most popular on-the-job training methods include job rotation and apprenticeship training; while the popular off-the-job training methods include classroom lectures and simulation exercises. On-the-job training is generally imparted in case of manufacturing firms for production-related jobs; while off-the-job training is mostly imparted for managerial and non-production related jobs. Q4. Define performance management? Write a brief note on 360 degree appraisal? Performance management (PM) includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner.

Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product of service, as well as many other areas. PM is also known as a process by which organizations align their resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities. 360 degree appraisal An appraisal made by top management, immediate superior, peers, subordinates, self and customers is called 360 Degree Appraisal. Here, the performance of the employee or manager is evaluated by six parties, including himself. So, e gets a feedback of his performance from everyone around him. This method is very reliable because evaluation is done by many different parties. These parties are in the best position to evaluate the employee or manager because they are continuously interacting and working with him. This method is mostly used to evaluate the performance of the employees. However, it is also used to evaluate other qualities such as talents, behavior, values, ethical standards, tempers, loyalty, etc. Parties involved in 360 degree apparaisal. Top Management The top management normally evaluates the middle level managers.

However, in a small organization, they also evaluate the performance of the lower level managers and senior employees. 2. Immediate Superior The immediate superior is in a very good position to evaluate the performance of his subordinates. This is because they have direct and accurate information about the work performance of their subordinates. 3. Peers / Co-workers Peer or colleagues also evaluate each other’s performance. They work continuously with each other, and they know each other’s performance. Peer evaluation is used mostly in cases where team work is important. . Subordinates The Subordinates can also evaluate the performance of his superior. Now-a-days students are asked to evaluate the performance of their teachers. 5. Self Appraisal In the self-appraisal, a person evaluates his own performance. He should be honest while evaluating himself. This results in self-development. 6. CustomersCustomers can also evaluate the performance of the employees who interacts with them. This evaluation is best because it is objective. It is also given a lot of importance because the customer is the most important person for the business.

Organizations use customer appraisals to improve the strengths and remove the weaknesses of their employees. 360-degree Feedback Definition:360-degree feedback is an evaluation method that incorporates feedback from the worker, his/her peers, superiors, subordinates, and customers. Results of these confidential surveys are tabulated and shared with the worker, usually by a manager. Interpretation of the results, trends and themes are discussed as part of the feedback. The primary reason to use this full circle of confidential reviews is to provide the worker with information about his/her performance from multiple perspectives.

From this feedback, the worker is able to set goals for self-development which will advance their career and benefit the organization Factors Linked to Success: Organizations who experience success with the 360-degree feedback methods have many environmental attributes present. Some of these are: Organizational climate fosters individual growth * Criticisms are seen as opportunities for improvement * Proper framing of feedback method by management * Assurance that feedback will be kept confidential * Development of feedback tool based on organizational goals and values * Feedback tool includes area for comments Brief workers, evaluators and supervisors about purpose, uses of data and methods of survey prior to distribution of tool * Train workers in appropriate methods to give and receive feedback * Support feedback with back-up services or customized coaching Factors Linked to Failure Many organizations have rushed into 360-degree feedback without laying the foundation for success. Typical errors include: Feedback tied to merit pay or promotions * Comments traced to individuals causing resentment between workers * Feedback not linked to organizational goals or values Use of the feedback tool as a stand alone without follow-up * Poor implementation of 360-degree tool negatively affects motivation * Excessive number of surveys are required of each worker with few tangible results provided to individuals Q5. What is meant by job analysis? Explain its purpose and methods? “A process used to identify the important tasks of a job and the essential competencies an individual should possess to satisfactorily perform the job. ” or “A wide variety of systematic procedures for examining, documenting, and rawing inferences about work activities, worker attributes, and work context. ” Job analysis objectives involves Job analysis process involves A. Organizational analysis: Organization structure Role of the job in relation to other jobs in the organization Class to which job belongs B. Selection of jobs: Based on study and observation, the competencies required for the job are identified. C. Data collection: Information gathering like responsibilities, duties and functions. D. Job description and specification:

The job description and specification provides a complete list of competencies and qualifications required. Most Common Methods of Job Analysis * Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one.

It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behavior of an employee in different situations.

The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behavior that result in performance. * Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it.

It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group. * Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness.

A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees. In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it won’t be used against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources. Q6. What are the benefits and objectives of employee welfare measures? Employee welfare means “the efforts to make life worth living for workmen. According to Todd “employee welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or social, of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry Objectives of Employee Welfare Employee welfare is in the interest of the employee, the employer and the society as a whole. The objectives of employee welfare are: – * It helps to improve. It improves the loyalty and morale of the employees. It reduces labor turnover and absenteeism. Welfare measures help to improve the goodwill and public image of the enterprise.

It helps to improve industrial relations and industrial peace. It helps to improve employee productivity Types of Employee Welfare (Benefits) * Intramural: – These are provided within the organization like: – Canteen, Rest rooms, Creches, Uniform etc. * Extramural: – These are provided outside the organization, like: – Housing, Education, Child welfare, Leave travel facilities, Interest free loans, Workers cooperative stores, Vocational guidance etc.. Types of Employee Welfare Statutory welfare   work – Voluntary welfare work – includes those activities which are undertaken by employers for their voluntary work.

Different ways of Social Security Provision in India 1. Social Insurance- common fund is established with periodical contribution from workers out of which all benefits in terms of cash or kind are paid. The employers ;amp; state prove major portion of finances. Benefits such as PF, Group Insurance etc are offered. 2. Social Assistance- Benefits are offered to persons of small means by govt. out of its general revenues. Eg- Old age pension Social Security Employee Welfare   Medical care – Sickness benefit in cash – Old age pension or retirement benefit – Invalidity pension – Maternity benefit – Accident benefit .