Management of the expatriate experience

I need you to add more about expatriate (int’l assigners), you can include:Management of the expatriate experience, Types of international assignment policies, women vs. men Expatriate and/or anything that you think is important and you should relate it to: “discuss one or more of the central requirements of international business management in the context of HR professional”.Use mostly journals, and please send them along for me when you submit the paper. Please make sure not to write than than 275 words and nothing more than 500 words. You can change anything you want though but please make the modification on this paper and with another colour.Regardsassessment criteria:content : clearly addresses the tsk requirement ( do you answer the question?)15%topic knowledge: up-to-date knowledge of subject area and ontextual/strategic issues(20%)synthesis : comprehensive inter-relation of material from different sources 10%)analysis: detailed and insight breakdown of situation/issues (20%) (can identify the key simliarities, differences and tension?)critique: Critically evaluates situation/issues discussed (can identify differing and problematic underlying assumptions and approaches?)(25%)referncing : thorough and accurate citation and referencing (5%)preseataaion : logical and coherent structure and clear presentation (5%)Hofstede’s research of the cultural differences.A cultural difference is the matter that has to be observed thoroughly. From the first sight people’s behaviors and attitudes towards different things are alike, but it’s not true. It is important to study the culture and customs of the nation with representatives of which the international company is going to cooperate. If the administration of the company uses their native methods of communication while working with the foreigners they may not obtain successful results.Geert Hofstede (1998) researched five cultural dimensions and the ways they are represented in different countries. So, the management should take into consideration such factors as power distance index, individualism, masculinity, uncertainly avoidance index and long-term orientation.Power Distance index displays the attitude of the country’s society towards the fact that some people have more power and some have less. The attitude towards the inequality of the people who have less power is significant because it reveals their ability and acceptation to obey.Individualism is contrasted with collectivism. Some countries have mostly individualistic society and the others have a collectivistic one. The representatives of the first kind act because of their trend to be separate and to defense their own interests. Those who were brought up in the collectivistic society used to exist in the groups that are combined according to some ideas or beliefs. They prefer to act together.‘Masculine’ and ‘feminine’ types of people are determined by the fact what features dominate in the society. As all the men have persevering and even aggressive features of character, the inhabitance with the same features is called ‘masculine’. The opposition to this type are the people that have mostly calm and patient temper. Hofstede noticed that even the women who live in the ‘masculine’ countries are more stubborn and aggressive than the women who live in the ‘feminine’ ones.Uncertainty avoidance index reveals the attitude of the people towards the situations that are not typical and their aspiration for truth. There are uncertainly avoidance cultures and uncertainly accepting ones. The representatives of the first culture are emotional and it is hard for them to accept another opinions or persuasions. They are sure in their right. People who live in the countries with uncertainly acceptance culture are tolerating towards the beliefs of another people and have a phlegmatic temper.People who have long-term orientation are perseverant and they have some neglect to real life, people with short term orientation are anxious about active life.So, these dimensions of the societies are fundamental for understanding different cultures better.International assignersJoint ventures and foreign subsidiaries are usually structured and organized much like their mother companies; the only distinction is that they have both expatriate and local managers. That’s why the international business operations are more difficult and have more complex structure than the domestic business operations.The performance management system that is used in the global business includes a lot of areas of international human recourse management responsibility, such as evaluating foreign managers and international assignees for pay increases.However, one of the most important obstacles to the successful administration and progress of these managers and international assignees is the regular require of recognition of the value of their overseas experience and expatriation, in general, and the casualness with which companies often evaluate these international assignees foreign performance. Certainly, big enterprises that have a lot of overseas assignees and many foreign subsidiaries say that ‘most (83 percent) do not use performance management to measure international assignees’ success. And many (35 percent) don’t use any type of measurement at all.’ (Andersen 1999, p. 18)One of the most important factors that influences upon the international assignees’ performance is the performance appraisal system of the company. However the correct and effective system of the performance appraisals is not an easy task even in the native country. The knowledge and the skills that have to be developed by the international assignees differ a lot from the abilities of the workers of the company that is located in the native country should have.  The international assignee and other foreign managers have to increase and make use of the knowledge that is necessary for any managerial assignment without any doubt.The requirement for more number of highly qualified human resource personnel has resulted in the need to use larger numbers of foreign nationals.‘Most multinational firms favor hiring local nationals for foreign subsidiaries, home-country nationals at headquarters, and, where a regional organization exists, a mix of foreign and home-country managers for regional positions.’ (Johnson 2003) Thanks to such method of international HR management the ethnic groups unite usually varies with the environment of a firm’s business and with the product strategy. So, the role of the staff that works at the native country diminishes in the case of lowering the importance of the area expertise.The principal subject for a large amount of companies in the management of their international assignment system is the arrangement of the competing interests of the firm, international HR management, and the international assignees and family.The business that is concerned about its globalization requires fast deed in order to produce innovative revenues, and to direct the expenses and threats involved with doing that. International human resource department requires adequate lead time to discover and choose successful international assignees. As Ohmae (1990) writes ‘they need a low enough case load of international assignees to be able to provide good service; they want to be able to apply an effective process for selecting and developing quality of international assignees candidates; and they desire to be able to apply a consistent policy of treatment of international assignees.’ International assignees themselves, and their families, need sufficient compensation for the individual and profession sacrifice they make while they relocate; they would like their family concerns to be given essential priority; and they look ahead to  be able to come back to a profession promotion that  takes benefit of their foreign practice.So, the way to success in the global operations is to satisfy the needs of companies and the needs of international assignees.The role of international assignees is very significant; because whether the business strategy will be clear and understandable all over the world depend on their working performance. In order to improve the results of the work there are a large amount of programs that consist of relevance, acceptability, sensitivity and practicality.The factor of relevance means that the HR manager and the worker should realize the relevance of their labor in the general activity and to evaluate the situation correctly.Acceptability is the right evaluation of the job from the side of the HR manager and the diligent execution of the duties by the expatriate. It needs to be seen as fair, reasonable, and accurate.Sensitivity is the attitude of the administration that includes taking into consideration cultural differences and adequacy in evaluating the business reality.The fact that the programs should be practical for the expatriates is also important. They should correspond to the business strategy and be not difficult to execute but not to simple. In this case there is a threat that such program will be done partially.These entire characteristics have to be implemented by the HR managers and need special attention.”Regardless of the effectiveness or availability of Performance Management (PM) tools, expatriate PM success depends largely on the manager and expatriate in question: how well they both understand, internalize, and accept PM, and how skillful they are in its implementation. To this end, appropriate PM training should be available for all expatriates, including their superiors.” (Johnson 2003). The high level of the performance management of the expatriate leads to improvements in their careers and company’s development.Moreover, in the current globalization arena, the role of human resource (HR) personnel in relation to international assignments should be viewed in specific perspectives: human resource personnel and international assignees, and the role of past experience in dealing with diverse employees. Whatever the role is, the basic requirements are openness to people, flexibility, autonomy, and career motivation (Frazee, 1998, p. 29).Firstly, the phases in selection of international assignees can be described as self-selection, creation of a candidate pool, assessment of technical skills, and making a mutual decision. Firstly, the candidate has to self analyze whether he or she can be a global assignee. Moreover, the favorability of family and other conditions need to be evaluated (Frazee, 1998, p. 29). In selecting global assignees, it is better to opt for self-selection than traditional selection (Frazee, 1998, p. 29). While traditional selection in meant for choosing assignees by employers through various interviews and tests, self-selection promotes self-assessment of candidates and decide on whether or not to go for the next step for selection process (Frazee, 1998, p. 29). The factors of self-selection include personality and individual characteristics, career and family issues (Frazee, 1998, p. 29). According to Johns, in case of personnel who shift from another position to HR, the experience in past positions and the change of influencing abilities pertaining to the post may help perform better as a HR manager in dealing with employees from different backgrounds (as cited in Frazee, 1998, p. 52).Furthermore, HR managers do have a major role in proper orientation of global assignees and making them adjust with new environment (Solomon, 1997, p. 22). Moreover, HR personnel need to evaluate the costs associated with expatriate programs (Anonymous, 1998, p. S5). Finally, they may have to deal with situations where employees may rise about differences in compensation between local and global assignees (Frazee, 1998, p. 9).Coming to the gender differences in international assignees, there are important aspects to consider. For example, in spite of having 30% female students in MBA programs in the US, only 14% are being selected by corporate America for international postings (Koretz, 1999).  Also, the estimated number of female expatriates is between 2 and 5 percent only (Harris, 1993). This has been explained by various reasons such as over estimation of women’s problems at workplace by males, and lower availability of corporate development programs such as fast track programs, individual career counseling and career planning workshops for women (Koretz, 1999; Selmer ; Leung, 2003). Further reasons include the traditional confinement of women to only certain job categories, socio-cultural issues of host countries and the problems of dual career couples (Harris, 1993).All in all, the aspect of international assignees in relation to HR professionals needs to consider various factors from employees selection, workplace conditions to gender differences.The requirements of international business management in the context of HR professional in working with international assignersIn my opinion, such requirements as workforce planning and staffing, training and health safety, and Crisis Management are the central issues of international business management in the context of HR profession when working with international assigners.The most significant subject for planning of training for international assigners is the importance of understanding the restricted culture and language.The organization of the compensation programs for multiple workforces around the world is a compound and not an easy work that is put into effect with the help of the balance sheet approach.Health and safety practices vary among countries as per related laws in those countries. However, HR managers should understand and cope with business decisions that are concerned with strategies, health and safety systems, and different practices faced in countries that may have an impact upon workforces and employee relations between international assignees.So, the requirements include learning the laws, systems of working and understanding the cultures of the countries. Global HR activities that involve preparation, scheming, structuring, implementing, organizing, or developing may be unsuccessful if they are used without considering the differences in countries. Successful processes and systems that are used in one country may fail when they are used in the same way in another one. All the aspects of the international business have a human element. The human recourse management was underestimated for a long time, but its functions and roles, nowadays, are accepted to be one of the most important. Nevertheless, ‘the HR professionals must first learn the geography and characteristics of the field’ (Ohmae, 1990).