Modernism vs. Post-Modernism

Modernism sociologically, is a discipline that arose in direct response to the social problems of “modernity” (Harriss 2000, 325); the term most generally refers to the social conditions, processes, and discourses of 1438-1789 and extending to the 1970s or later (Toulmin 1992, 3–5). Modernity may also refer to tendencies in intellectual culture, particularly the movements intertwined with secularization and post-industrial life, such as Marxism, existentialism, and the formal establishment of social science. Modernism| Advantage| Disadvantages| . Man learns to socialize through language and become part of the society (Marx). | 1. Man becomes a form imaged of the society through conforming what they think is right or wrong. | 2. When the oppressed and the exploited classes in the society come to full consciousness of their situation they become aware of the objective positivist of a new social order (Marx). | 2. Rallies and protesters population increase and lead to deviances and crimes. | 3. Social phenomena are explained through sociology not psychology. (Durkheim). | 3.

Some social phenomena will be misunderstood like suicide can also be explained psychologically . | Postmodernism is a complicated term, or set of ideas, one that has only emerged as an area of academic study since the mid-1980s. Postmodernism is hard to define, because it is a concept that appears in a wide variety of disciplines or areas of study, including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communications, fashion, and technology. It’s hard to locate it temporally or historically, because it’s not clear exactly when postmodernism begins. Post-modernism|

Advantage| Disadvantages| 1. As the human nature changes the human studies also constructs its own image of man, and this image promote novel techniques of dealing with man. | 1. The concept of human nature changes as new disciplines, discourses, and knowledge are born. That gives rise to new technologies, which can lead to forgetting some values. | 2. Power is an important ingredient of every society in organizing social institutions and individual purposes. | 2. Power, fascist in revolutionary parties and fascist in each man are present everywhere where it can lead to conflict. 3. We learn to accept reality and adjust to it. | 3. A consensus society is an illusion in postmodernism. | Modernism Vs Post-modernism In weighing the pros and cons of modernism and post-modernism I would put my stakes on modernism. In Randy David’s discussion on the nature of man, he point out the modern theory of man. It says that people develop their human potential through a lifelong social experience called socialization, where they use language. Through language we become a member of the society by a means of communicating ideas, sharing feelings, and contributing knowledge.

Professor Randy David once says on his discussion “language is not only a medium of communication, but a map of the world that he or she shares with his fellow members”. This is an advantage in modernism for man become active in the society and prove that human being is not a cultural dope or a mere social automaton (Parsons). Even though man becomes a form imaged of the society through conforming what they think is right or wrong. I know, as a moral creature people must refer some attitudes and behaviors to others.

Conformity is defined as a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in with a group. This change is in response to real involving the physical presence of others or imagined involving the pressure of social norms and expectations. So man conforms in the society’s thinking of what is right and wrong. In modern times when the oppressed and the exploited classes in the society come to full consciousness of their situation they become aware of the objective positivist of a new social order.

In social-conflict approach it sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. Social conflict is a confrontation of social power. But we must take note that it is not limited to hostile or antagonistic opposition; it is not wholly a clash of coercive powers as often is implied, but of any opposing social powers. When an oppressed becomes aware of their situation they want change in social order that maybe manifested through debating, arguing, or disputing; of bargaining powers through haggling, negotiating, and many more.

Deviant people push a society’s moral boundaries, suggesting alternatives to the status quo and encouraging change. According to Durheim “todays deviance can be tomorrow’s morality”. Rallies and protesters population increase means more people is part of socially constructed reality that emerges in interaction. According to Emile Durkheim social phenomena must be explained sociologically not psychologically. In his now classic work, Suicide he was interested in explaining a social phenomenon, suicide, and employed both data and theory to offer an explanation.

By aggregating data for large groups of people in Europe, Durkheim was able to discern patterns in suicide rates and connect those patterns with another concept (or variable): religious affiliation. Durkheim found that Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than were Catholics. At this point, Durkheim’s analysis was still in the data stage; he had not proposed an explanation for the different suicide rates of the two groups. It was when Durkheim introduced the ideas of anomie and social solidarity that he began to explain the difference in suicide rates.

Durkheim argued that the looser social ties found in Protestant religions lead to weaker social cohesion and reduced social solidarity. The higher suicide rates were the result of weakening social bonds among Protestants. While Durkheim’s findings have since been criticized, his study is a classic example of the use of theory to explain the relationship between two concepts. Durkheim’s work also illustrates the importance of theory: without theories to explain the relationship between concepts, we would not be able to understand cause and affect relationships in social life.

And to find the cause and effect relationship is the major component of the sociological theory. This theory is prominent because they are quite good at explaining social life because they have withstood a great deal of criticism. But in my opinion I think they should also view it psychologically, what if that person has mental breakdown, mental illness or disorder. To sum it all up, even though there is a two sides of a coin I can say that the two sides coincides with each other. The disadvantage also has an advantage.

Man learns to socialize through language and help him or her to become part of the society, it’s their choice if they want to conform or not, if people conform they are more likely to be accepted by the wider community and be able to secure work, housing and also social status which is good. When the oppressed and the exploited classes in the society come to full consciousness of their situation they become aware of the objective positivist of a new social order which can lead to its disadvantage that rallies and protesters population increases and lead to deviances and crimes.

Which only means that people care, they have knowledge about who and what they are in the society and wants social change. In my third point as what Durkheim says ”that social phenomena are explained through sociology not psychology” is what I said earlier that they should also view some events in psychological way. But modernisms should be studying how new disciplines in sociology and psychiatry on new institutions or other institutions like prisons and hospitals are born and how they create their own image.

This article has presented some of the prominent differences between modernist and postmodernist thought. Its up to us if we will follow this but it’s also up to us to be someone who can contribute to the next post-postmodernism after the death of postmodernism.

References

http://en. wikibooks. org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology/Sociological_Theory#cite_note-Durkheim1997-2

http://www. simplypsychology. org/conformity. html

http://www. bdavetian. com/Postmodernism. html Sociology Twelfth Edition, John J. Macionis