Training in Mahindra

Companies have found that investment in human capital in the form of training and development yields high returns. The ones that recognize the value of their employees and place a new emphasis on education and training are becoming more competitive, successful, and profitable as a result. Training can be broadly divided into 2 categories: Behavioral Training: This training is given to employees to improve their softskills and inculcate managerial qualities in them.

Functional Training: It is job-related training. It focuses on the work to be done. It systematically uses selected, structured and documented workplace experience, combining theory with practice, and is guided by clearly defined objectives. Functional training is very important in manufacturing industry as it helps employees in ensuring their safety while working on machines, upgrade them with latest manufacturing practices and improve the productivity of company. Training Need Identification: Training need identification is one of the foremost step in designing a training program.

Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organization (long term) and individual employees (short term). This involves finding answers to questions such as: whether training is needed? If yes, where it is needed? Which training is needed? Etc. Once we identify training gaps within the organization, it becomes easy to design an appropriate training program. It is one of the foremost steps in a training program. 1 Training Methods: Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction.

On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workspace. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at location other than the real work spot. Effectiveness of Training: It is necessary to measure how effective is the training program employees are given. One of the ways of doing this is through Kirkpatrick Model. In this method there are 4 levels at which training is evaluated a) Level 1- Reaction -Feedback about how trainees felt about the training b) Level 2-

Learning- measuring whether trainees learnt what trainers intended to teach c) Level 3- Behavioral -measuring whether the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job d) Level 4- Results- At this level, you analyse the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to benchmark the Functional training process followed in Swaraj with that followed in other leading manufacturing companies.

Some secondary objectives are: ? To study ways of Training Need Identification ? To study various methods of off-job and on-job training. ? To study Effectiveness of training ? To analyze the Training system for further development ? To suggest measures for the improvement of the Training program. 2 METHODOLOGY: 1. Research design The Research Design is Exploratory, as it is undertaken to primarily study the functional training process and discover insights into its better working.. 2. Sample Design Convenience sampling has been used 3.

Data Collection The primary data has been collected with the help of a questionnaire. The secondary data has been collected from various sources like journals, books and websites. 4. Questionnaire Design There are a total of 9 questions that aim to cover all aspects of the functional training process. It includes multiple choice questions. 5. Data Analysis Bar Graphs and Pie Charts have been used to compare data. 3 CHAPTER -1 COMPANY PROFILE History : In the mid-sixties, with the Green Revolution triggering large-scale tractor usage, there was a need for the country to build sufficient indigenous capacity. o. meet. this. growing. demand. In 1965, the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur initiated design and development of Swaraj Tractor based on indigenous knows how. That is how the idea for development of what was to become Swaraj was initiated. The first prototype was ready in May 1967 and by April 1970, field experience of over 1,500 hours had been gained. At that point, it was decided to christen a name for the product – signifying Indian, easy to pronounce and signifying power and grace.

The name `Swaraj’, was approved by the then Prime Minister,. Mrs. Indira. Gandhi. In 1970, the Government of Punjab acquired the Swaraj tractor’s design and established Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL). The tractors were produced and sold under the brand name of Swaraj. In 2007, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. acquired majority stake in PTL, and in Feb 2009, it was merged into M&M as the Swaraj Division of Mahindra & Mahindra. Outline: Swaraj has been manufacturing tractors that serve the need of their buyers in agricultural as well as commercial operations.

Their product range starting from a 22 HP category tractor to a 72 HP category tractor straddles every HP category requirement of their customers. The brand enjoys a strong equity in the market and commands a market share of close to 12%. The brand is known for producing tractors that are powerful and reliable. Presently, there are more than 7,00,000 satisfied customers of Swaraj in the 4 country. Swaraj tractors are also exported to various countries including Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania and the USA.

Milestones 1970 1974 1983 1995 Establishment of PTL for making Swaraj Brand of Tractors Commercial production started with 2 models 724 FE & 735 FE Swaraj 855 launched in 50 HP category Establishment of 2nd plant for manufacturing Swaraj Tractors in Chhaparchhedi Cumulative sales of Swaraj Tractors touches 5,00,000 M&M ( leader in domestic tractor industry ) acquires majority stake in PTL Merger of PTL into M&M and subsequent transformation as Swaraj Division of Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

Rated Highest In Industry for Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Sales Satisfaction Index (SSI) Swaraj Division achieved Stage-5 in MQW Assessment Swaraj becomes the second tractor company in the world to win the prestigious DEMING Prize Rated Highest In Industry for Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) Swaraj Division Plant 1 and Plant 2 Won TPM Excellence Award From JIPM 2002 2007 2009 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 5 DETAILS Company Name Mahindra & Mahindra Swaraj Tractors Ltd Head office Level of Office Phase IV, Industrial Area, S. A. S Nagar Mohali City Punjab State 91-172-2271620 -27 2270820 – 23 www. ahindraswaraj. com Website Automobile Industry Industry Best Company Type Private Sector Sector Number of Employees 2100 91-172- Address Phone Number Product Portfolio Less than 30 HP 724 XM 30-40 HP 834 XM 6 40-50 HP 841 XM More than 50 HP 855 FE 724 XM Orchard 825 XM 735 FE 735 XM 843 XM 734 FE , 744 XM 855 XM 724 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 2 cylinder Standard Dual Clutch 1000 kgf hydraulic capacity 1824 cc engine Toggle switch – Easy to operate during inter cultivation applications 834 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct injection, Diesel engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 3 cylinders Standard Single Clutch 1000 Kgf Hydraulic lifting Capacity 2952 cc engine Adjustable P. U sliding seat for operator comfort 8 841 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speed, 4 cylinders Standard Single Clutch 1200 Kgf Hydraulic lifting Capacity 2730 cc engine Compact design with new attractive decals 9 855 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct injection, Diesel engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 3 cylinders Standard dual clutch 1700 kgf hydraulic capacity 3480 cc engine Isolator valve for auxiliary application 10 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT MAHINDRA SWARAJ The training Objectives at Mahindra Swaraj are as follows: ? The skills and knowledge of employees are aligned with the latest technology and development. ? To enable them to do the job in more effective way so as to reduce learning time. Types of Training: A wide variety of training programs are used in different organizations, depending on requirements and size of their manpower.

These trainings include both behavioral and functional trainings. Functional Training Need Identification ? Functional Competency Manual has been prepared for Swaraj Division for all the departments. This is the responsibility of the training department. ? Department Head prioritizes 4 Functional Competencies for the respective department out of the basket of functional competencies defined for each job family of the department with reference to the Functional Competency Manual during Annual Appraisal process. Competency grid is prepared (number of years of service Vs. Hierarchal Bands) for prioritized functional competencies wherein minimum required level of each competency is mentioned. This is done in the respective departments and the department head is responsible for this. 11 ? Out of the prioritized 4 competencies, the supervisor identifies and rates the individual in the annual appraisal form on 2 competencies. This is also done in respective departments and the responsibility lies with the line manager. ?

Training Needs are identified in the Appraisal Form considering the Prioritized Competencies by Assessor. This is also done in respective departments but the accountability lies with the PMS team. . Designing the training program Once the training needs are assessed, the H. R. Dept. and the trainers jointly design the training program. The contents are worked out keeping in mind the objective, the target group and the skills required. Other factors like – nature of work performed and existing competencies play a role in the development of the programs.

There are a number of predefined and designed training programs that are organized frequently, for example, personality development programs, communication skills and other technical programs. Conducting training programs The trainers for the program are decided based on the contents of the program. The choice of the faculty depends on the topic to be covered, the grasping power of the trainees and the budget. Evaluation At Mahindra Swaraj Kirkpatrick Model of Training Evaluation is followed. 2 Table with the complete Functional Training Process Activity Functional Training Need Identification for Management Staff  Functional Competency Manual has been prepared for Swaraj  Division for all the departments  Department Head prioritizes 4 Functional Competencies for the respective department out of the basket of functional  competencies defined for each job family of the department with  reference to the Functional Competency Manual during Annual  Appraisal process.

Competency grid is prepared (number of years of service Vs. Hierarchal Bands) for prioritized functional competencies wherein  minimum required level of each competency is mentioned. Responsibility Accountabi lity Training Training  Executive Respective  Department PMS Respective  Department Departme nt Head Out of the prioritized 4 competencies, the supervisor identifies and  Respective  rates the individual in the annual appraisal form on 2  Department  competencies. Line  Managers

Training Needs are identified in the Appraisal Form considering the  Respective  PMS  Prioritized Competencies by Assessor  Department   Team  Compiled Competency Ratings & Training needs for the  management staff are taken from PMS team after the Annual  Performance Appraisal completion. Functional Competency Indices for the organization are calculated,  which is the competency level percentage. It is derived by dividing  the Average Actual competency rating value by highest  competency scale level and converting it to percentage value.

The Indices so derived are indicative of the competency level  within the organization so as to draw the improvement plans  accordingly. Discussion  & designing of Annual Training Plan  Inputs for Focus area for Training for both behavioral and  functional for current Financial Year received from the Business  Plan as discussed in SLT  Inputs from behavioral TNI, functional TNI and last Financial Year  Training Plan are taken and assessed to set Training priorities for  the Training Calendar cycle of the Financial year. 13 PMS

PMS  Team Training Training  Executive  Training  Executive     Training  Executive  Training  Executive Training HR Head Training Classification of the Training Programs as Inhouse/ Sponsored  programs   Discussion of the Tentative Training Plan with Swaraj Leadership  Team & Division Heads  Freezing of Annual Training Plan & Approval of Training budget in  discussion with SLT  Development  / Identification of training Modules  Identifying and Contacting Consultants / External Agency for the In? house Training Program Delivery.

Discussion of the In? house Training Module Objectives and the  Deliverables with the Consultants / External Agency for the  Training Programs  Finalization of the In? house Training Modules & their tentative  schedule  Identification of the appropriate Sponsored Training Programs   Designing of Quarterly Training Calendar  Training Calendar is freezed for the quarter based on the inputs  from the training plan  Quarterly Training calendar sent to Department/ Unit heads Training  Training   HR Head     Training

Training  Executive  Training  Executive  Training  Executive     Training  Executive  Training  Executive  Training  Executive  Training  Executive     Training  Executive  Training  Executive  Training  Executive     Training  Executive   Departm ent Head   Departm ent Head        Training  Executive Training   Training   Training      Training   Training Identify & finalize participants based on TNI / invite nominations as  per calendar  Training   Conducting Training Programs  Administrative arrangements in terms of logistics & stay for faculty  and training venue, training material etc. s per checklist  Conducting training programs and releasing Management Staff for  In? house Training Programs. Releasing Management Staff for external programs  as per  respective program dates     Training    Respective  Department   Respective  Department Training Program Evaluation & Effectiveness? Refer to Annexure 1     Training Documentation  Competency & Training card spanning 3 years is maintained for  Management staff annually. Training 14 CHAPTER – 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Hemalakshmi Raju has written a research paper on functional training.

In this paper she discusses how the employees are less enthusiastic towards functional training as compared to behavioral training. She talks about the myths which employees have regarding functional training. The myths are that employees generally consider functional training useful only for junior level and for line functions only. Also the organisations think that the trainers have to be highly qualified but in this paper she busts these myths and explains how functional training can help every employee and every department.

Reid Bates from Louisiana State University has written a paper ‘A critical Analysis of evaluation practice: the Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence’. In this paper he analyses the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. He said that Kirkpatrick model over-simplifies the training process and is incomplete. Second limitation cited is that every level is considered more important than the previous and making the level 4 most important. Thirdly, he says that in the Kirkpatrick model there is a causal linkage which means that positive reaction at a previous can only yield success at the next level. Vicente F.

Estrada has written a paper ‘Training in Manufacturing Continues to Evolve’ in which he enumerates the 8 principles which a functional training program should have which are 1) Systematic 2) A total learning experience 3) Conducted as a line function 4) Inclusive 5) Supported by everyone 6)Followed through 7)Relevant 8) Measured ‘A framework for training worke rs in contemporary manufacturing environments’ a research paper published in International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing discusses the need of human resource management and training in the automated manufacturing industry today and gives the general framework of training employees in manufacturing industry. The paper lists the following considerations to be kept in mind: 1) Global Competition which includes user requirement needs, producing quality products, etc. 2) Identifying the best technology 3) Prototype development requirements like skill requirement, automation needs, capital requirement, etc. Identifying Your Organisation’s Training Needs by Capital Wave Inc. discusses the need of assessment and measurement of current skill level, Succession Planning 15 eeds, future anticipated needs and career development in designing of training program. Strategic Training by McGraw- Hill Australia discusses the impact of work role and organizational functions on training. It talks about the impact of different business strategies like concentration, internal growth, external growth and disinvestment on training programs. 16 CHAPTER – 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Research Problem Checking the validity of the functional training process and its optimization. The Research Objective ? Optimization of Functional Training Process at Mahindra Swaraj ? To study ways of Training Need Identification ? To study various methods of off-job and on-job training. To analyze the Training system for further development ? To suggest measures for the improvement of the Training program. Scope of the Study The training and development activities were studied at Mahindra Swaraj and training techniques of other leading companies were analyzed with the help of a questionnaire. Need for the Study 17 Every organization big or small, productive or non-productive, economic or social, old or newly established should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc. Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons ? To match the Employee specifications with the Job Requirements. Organizational Viability and the Transformation process ? Technological Advances ? Organizational Complexity ? Human Relations ? Change in the Job Assignment The need for training also arises to: ? Increase productivity ? Improve quality of the product / service. ? Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs. ? Improve organizational climate. ? Improve health and safety. ? Prevent obsolescence. ? Effect the personal growth. ? Minimize the resistance to change. An ideal training process will help the company increase productivity and will also be critical in development of employees. Limitations ? The study covered only 26 respondents 18 ? Time constraint is also one of the limitations. Inspite of taking care some wrong information may have crept in the research. Research Design The Research Design is Exploratory, as it is primarily undertaken to study the functional training process and gain insights into ways of improving it. Sample Design The sample size taken is 26 and the technique used is Convenience Sampling. Data Collection For any statistical enquiry the collection of data or information is done through principle sources identically i. e. , by primary sources and secondary sources of data. PrimaryData:? Primary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time. Primary data for the study is collected through questionnaire and indepth interviews.

The interviews were used to establish the parameters to be added in the questionnaire and to establish any special training practices followed in the organisatios.. SecondaryData:? Most of the data used for the study is secondary in nature and has been collected from various journals and books. 19 Questionnaire Design There are a total of 9 questions that aims to cover all aspects of the functional training process It includes multiple choice questions Data Analysis Bar Graphs and Pie Charts have been used to compare data. 20 CHAPTER -4 ABOUT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEFINITIONS OF TRAINING:- ? The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping those correct deficiencies in their performance. —– Luis R. Gomez Mejia, —– David B Balkan. Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. —– Robert L Mathis, —– John H. Jackson. ? Training is a process to increase an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. —– K. Aswathappa. ? The process of teaching new employees, the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. —– Gary Dazzler. 21 ? Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. —– Flippo. Development Development is mainly considered for the executives or the management.

So the concept is elaborated and described as under executive or management development. Definitions:? Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. It is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. —– V S P Rao. ? It is any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. —– Gary Dazzler. Introduction to Training and Development Companies have found that investment in human capital in the form of training and development yields high returns. The ones that recognize the value of their 22 mployees and place a new emphasis on education and training are becoming more competitive, successful, and profitable as a result. According to a study by Knowledge Assessment Management, companies in the top 20 percent of those who spend money on training receive higher returns in the stock market. Some training and development programs teach new hires to perform a specific job, while others update the skills and knowledge of established employees. Some of the money is spent to provide technology-related training that teaches employee to operate, maintain, or repair equipment used in the workplace. Technology training is needed for workers in industries as diverse as construction, manufacturing, health, and transportation.

Technical professionals include scientists, architects, engineers, and health professionals. Blue-collar technical workers include mechanics, repair people, and those in precision production jobs. Technology is constantly changing and therefore job responsibilities are constantly changing, requiring many workers to update their skills on a regular basis. After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes greater importance. According to Flippo, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning.

A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Features of training ? ? Increases knowledge and skills for doing a job. Bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behavior. 23 ? ? Job oriented process, vocational in nature. Short term activity designed essentially for operatives. HRM AND TRAINING Recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of overseas competition and the relative success of economies like Japan, Germany and Sweden where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized.

Technological developments and organizational change have gradually led some employers to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their employees, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. This has also been underscored by the rise in human resource management with its emphasis on the importance of people and the skills they possess in enhancing organizational efficiency. Such HRM concepts as ‘commitment’ to the company and the growth in the ‘quality’ movement have led senior management terms to realize the increased importance of training, employee development and long term education. There has also been more recognition of the need to complement the qualities of employees with the needs of the organization.

Such concepts require not only careful planning but a greater emphasis on employee development. HRD programs are continuous and shaped to fit the culture changes in the organization in relation to the needs of the individual. In this way training and HRD become tools for effecting change and the policy ramification can be wide ranging and strategic. As a result training takes on a variety of forms and covers a multitude of subjects. Training Objectives ? To upgrade the skills and prevent obsolescence. 24 ? To develop healthy and constructive attitude. ? To prepare employees for future assignments. ? To minimize operational errors. ? To enhance employee confidence and morale. ? To bring down costs of production. To bring down labor turn over and absenteeism. Training vs Development Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual or intellectual. Development, in contrast, is considered to be more general than training and more oriented towards individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed toward management people. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding that will enable people to carry out non technical organizational functions more effectively, such as problem solving, decision making and relating to people. Training Development Distinctions Table Learning Dimension Who Training Non-managers and managers What Technical-Mechanical Operations Why Specific job related information When Short Term Long Term Theoretical-Conceptual ideas General knowledge Development Managers 25 Areas of Training The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories: ? Knowledge – Here the trainee learns about a set rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company. ? Technical Skills – The employee is taught a specific skill (e. g. operating a machine, handling computer etc. ) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Social Skills – The employee is made to learn about him and other, develop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. ? Techniques – This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the –job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at molding employee attitudes: when administered properly Training can be broadly divided into 2 parts: BEHAVIORAL TRAINING: This training is given to employees to improve their soft-skills and inculcate managerial qualities in them. FUNCTIONAL TRAINING: It is job-related training. It focuses on the work to be done.

It systematically uses selected, structured and documented workplace experience, combining theory with practice, and is guided by clearly defined objectives. Functional training is very important in manufacturing industry as it 26 helps employees in ensuring their safety while working on machines, upgrade them with latest manufacturing practices and improve the productivity of company. TRAINING PROCESS Training process can be divided into 3 parts: a) Assessment b) Implementation c)Evaluation A systematic approach to training Table 1. Assessment Determine training needs. Identify training objectives. Conduct training. 2. Implementation Select training methods. 3. Evaluation

Compare training outcomes and criteria. TRAINING ASSESSMENT: Training assessment is a very comprehensiveexamination of what is currently being trained,what knowledge, skills, and abilities should be added to the education program, and what may needs to be added in the future. Areas of assessment and assessment methods can differ from subject to subject within the organization, and most certainly differ between organizations themselves. After assessment the process of Training need identification is carried out. Training Need Identification: It is a process to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity.

Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. It can be done by the following ways: 27 a) Observation: In this you take your observations of the person doing the job and then break them down into the task areas. For each area, you can determine the individual tasks, such as then determine its frequency. From there, you can determine which tasks have more importance by their frequency as well as which tasks will require more detailed knowledge. Finally, you can determine if adequate training exists on each task and task area. b) Self-Nomination: An employee may feel that he lacks knowledge and skill in areas critical for his job and may request for training in that area.

This method is very important where employees are motivated to perform better. c) Performance Appraisals: They can reveal areas of weakness and potential improvement in your workforce, helping to identify training needs. Continually updating training programs based on performance appraisal feedback can boost your workforce’s productivity and efficiency over time. They are one of the most popular ways of training need identification. d) Depends on Project Requirements: In this the training program is customized according to the need of the project. e) Opinion Survey: It is one of the most common needs assessment tool. Survey can be written or online.

You can administer surveys to employees, managers, customers, and executives, and these surveys can give you an overall view of the needs (and types of needs) that currently exist. f) Critical Incidents: These are the needs which occur because of a catastrophic failure such as a factory explosion, a regulatory infraction, or even a natural disaster. 28 TRAINING METHODS The next part of the training program is to decide the training method. Training Methods: There are two kinds of main training methods. ? On-the-job training methods. ? Off-the-job training methods. Training Methods On-The-Job Methods ? ? Orientation Training Apprenticeship Training Job Rotation Training Internship Training Job Instruction Training(JIT). Coaching and Mentoring Job Rotation Off-The-Job Methods ? ? ? ? ?

Vestibule Testing Case Study Lecture Role Play Programmed Instruction ? ? ? ? ? Selection of training methods Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at location other than the real work spot. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below: 29 On. the. Job. Trainings. (OJT): When an employee learns the job in actual working site in real life situation, and not simulated environment, it is called OJT. Employee learns while working. This type of training is the most ommonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first-hand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimised as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job.

On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments. On-the-job training boosts employee morale: Survey Over 40% employers voted on-the-job training for increased productivity and 35% for enhanced employee morale in the organization in a survey concerning training and development, conducted by TJinsite, research and knowledge arm of TimesJobs. com. A considerable share of the surveyed employers also claimed to reduce attrition by using training and development methodology. Employees too appreciate learning and training at the workplace since it enables them to develop knowledge and skills without leaving the work.

In the TJinsite survey, on-the-job training by seniors has been voted as the most preferred method of training by 71% employees. Other training methods come at distant second; with workshop and seminars preferred by 15% of surveyed employees, followed by external trainers (11%) and least preferred manual ; journals (3%). 30 On-The-Job Training Methods (a) Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs.

This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. (b) Coaching: The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. ”Experience is simply the name we give our mistakes. ” – Oscar Wilde. (c) Job Instruction: This method is also known as training through step by step.

Under this method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. (d) Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship is a formalized method of training curriculum program that combines classroom education with on-the-job work under close supervision. The training curriculum is planned in advance and conducted in careful steps from day to day. Most trade apprenticeship programs have a duration of three to four years before an apprentice is considered completely accomplished in that 31 trade or profession.

This method is appropriate for training in crafts, trades and technical areas, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training or apprenticeship period, e. g. , job of a craftsman, a machinist, a printer, a tool maker, a pattern designer, a mechanic, etc. (e) Internship Internship is one of the on-the-job training methods. Individuals entering industry in skilled trades like machinist, electrician and laboratory technician are provided with thorough instruction though theoretical and practical aspects. For example, TISCO, TELCO and BHEL select the candidates from polytechnics, engineering colleges and management institutions and provide apprenticeship training.

Apprenticeship training programmes are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities and industrial organisations to provide the opportunity to the students to gain real-life experience as well as employment. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: 1. It is directly in the context of job 2. It is often informal 3. It is most effective because it is learning by experience 4. It is least expensive 5. Trainees are highly motivated 6. It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: 1. Trainer may not be experienced enough to train or he may not be so inclined. 2. It is not systematically organized 3. Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards. 32 Off. the. Job. Trainings. (OJT): Off-the-job training is conducted in a location specifically designated for training.

It may be near the workplace or away from work, at a special training center or a resort Conducting the training away from the workplace minimize distractions and allows trainees to devote their full attention to the material being taught- However, off-thejob training programs may not provide as much transfer of training to the actual job as do on-the-job programs. Many people equate off-the-job training with the lecture method, but in fact a very wide variety of methods can be used. Definitions: Employee training at a site away from the actual work environment. It often utilizes lectures, case studies, role playing, simulation, etc. www. businessdictionary. com Off the Job Training Methods 1. Classroom Lectures: under the off the job methods of training, classroom method or lecture method is well-known to train white collar or managerial level employees in the organisation. under this method employees are called to the room like that of classroom to give training by trainer in the form of lectures.

This method is effectively used for the purpose of teaching administrative aspects or on management subject to make aware of procedures and to give instructions on particular topic. Advantage – It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. Disadvantages – Low interest of employees. It is not learning by practice. It is Oneway communication. No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to lead to boredom for employees. 33 2. Vestibule Training: – Mostly this method of training will be used to train technical staff, office staff and employees who deal with tools and machines. Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor by bringing equipments or tools to certain place where training is provided, but not work place.

Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. Vestibule training is provided to employees when new or advanced equipment or tools introduced in to the organisation to do a particular job by using them. 3. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation in the past in same organisation or somewhere else and trainees are supposed to analyze and give their conclusions in writing. This is another excellent method to ensure full and whole hearted participation of employees and generates good interest among them.

Case is later discussed by instructor with all the pros and cons of each option. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. 4. Role Playing: During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and training. This method is also called ‘role-reversal’, ‘socio-drama’ or ‘psycho-drama’. Here trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned roles in a given situation, which is explained to the group. There are no written lines to be said and, naturally, no rehearsals.

The role players have to quickly respond to the situation that is ever changing and to react to it as they would in the real one. It is a method of human interaction which involves realistic behaviour in an imaginary or hypothetical situation. 5. Programmed Instructions: This involves two essential elements: (a) a step-bystep series of bits of knowledge, each building upon what has gone before, and (b) a mechanism for presenting the series and checking on the trainee’s knowledge. 34 Questions are asked in proper sequence and indication given promptly whether the answers are correct. This programme may be carried out with a book, a manual or a teaching machine. It is primarily used for teaching factual knowledge such as Mathematics, Physics, etc.

Advantages of Off-the-Job Training • Trainers are usually experienced enough to train • It is systematically organized •Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: •It is not directly in the context of job • It is often formal •It may not be based on experience. •It is expensive. •Trainees may not be much motivated • It is artificial in nature. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the light of bad information”. Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training program. Evaluation of training can be done by Kirkpatrick Model 35 The Kirkpatrick Model of Training Evaluation Donald Kirkpartick has developed a very popular evaluation model that has been used since the late 1950s by the training community. The focus is on measuring four kinds of outcomes that should result from a highly effective training program. Kirkpatrick’s model includes four levels or steps of outcome evaluation: ? ? ? ? Level 1 Evaluation—Reaction Level 2 Evaluation—Learning Level 3 Evaluation—Behavior Level 4 Evaluation—Results Level 1—Reaction Here the goal is to measure participants’ reactions to the training program. It should measure their reactions immediately after the program. Level one evaluation should not just include reactions toward the overall program (e. g. , Did you like the program? ; it should also include measurement of participants’ reactions or attitudes toward specific components of the program, such as the instructor, the topics, the presentation style, the schedule, audiovisuals, etc. Furthermore, each of these components can be further broken down into sub-components for evaluation (e. g. , you can ask participants to evaluate specific characteristics of the instructor, the presentation, etc. ). In short, level one evaluation is far more than just the measurement of overall customer satisfaction. Learning (Level two outcomes) and transfer of learning (Level three outcomes) are unlikely to occur unless participants have positive attitudes toward the training program.

Therefore, it is important to determine participants’ reactions to the 36 training program. Also, positive reactions are important because managers are more likely to eliminate unpopular training programs. Finally, the measurement of specific aspects of the training program can provide important information about what aspects of the training program can be improved in the future. Here are a few advantages of level one evaluation: ? ? You will know how the participants felt about the training event. It may point out content areas that trainees felt were missing from the training event. ? ? It will tell you how engaged the participants felt by the training event.

It can provide information about overall participant reaction as well as participant feedback and evaluation of specific aspects of the training event. ? Detailed level one evaluation can provide formative evaluation information that can be used to improve future versions of the training program (e. g. , you can fix the things the participants disliked about the program and add the things they felt was missing). Level 2—Learning Here the goal is to determine what the training program participants learned during the training event. Learning outcomes can include changes in knowledge, skills, or attitudes. The evaluation should focus on measuring what was covered in the training event (i. e. , the learning objectives).

Level two evaluation should be done immediately after the training event to determine if participants gained the knowledge, skills, or attitudes. 37 Here are few advantages of level two evaluation: ? Demonstrating participant learning should help trainers in promoting their training program. ? Knowledge of level two evaluation can help in interpreting the results of level three evaluation (e. g. , if level three results do not occur, it may because of workplace factors and not because of any flaw in the training program). ? Detailed level two evaluation can provide formative evaluation information that can be used to improve future versions of the training program (e. g. , you may find certain learning objectives that are not being met).

Level 3—Behavior Here the goal is to find out if training program participants change their on-the-jobbehavior (OJB) as a result of their having attended and participated in the training program. If the behavior change does not occur, you also want to find out why the change did not occur. The level three question is, Did the training have a positive effect on job performance? Level three evaluation specifically involves measuring the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitudes from the training context to the workplace. Here are a few advantages of level three evaluation: ? Provides measurement of actual behavior on the job, rather than only measuring or demonstrating positive reaction and/or learning.

This is important because you want to have actual on-the-job results from the training program. 38 ? Level three outcomes are required for level four outcomes (i. e. , they are the intervening variables or factors that lead to level four outcomes); therefore, it is good news when level three outcomes are found. ? Most level three outcomes are intrinsically useful, even if level four outcomes (i. e. , final organizational or business results) are never fully demonstrated (e. g. , it is useful to have managers who are effective listeners and supportive, or employees who know how to do basic work on their computers, or employees who act respectfully toward employees from different ethnic or cultural groups). ?

In many situations, evidence of level one outcomes, level two outcomes, and level three outcomes will be sufficient evidence of the merit and usefulness of a training program. This is especially true when all of these provide evidence of positive results of the training program. Level 4—Results Here the goal is to find out if the training program led to final results, especially business results that contribute to the “bottom line” (i. e. , business profits). Level four outcomes are not limited return on training investment (ROI). Level four outcomes can include other major results that contribute to the well-functioning of an organization. Level four includes any outcome that most people would agree is “good for the business. Level four outcomes are either changes in financial outcomes (such as positive ROI or increased profits) or changes in variables that should have a relatively direct effect on financial outcomes at some point in the future. Here are some examples of different kinds of level four outcomes: ? Improved quality of work. 39 ? ? ? ? ? Higher productivity. Reduction in turnover. Fewer accidents. Customer satisfaction. Increased profits. evaluation description and characteristics examples of evaluation tools and methods relevance and practicability evaluation level and type 1. Reaction Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt, and their personal reactions to the training or learning experience, for example: Did the trainees like and enjoy the training?

Did they consider the training relevant? Was it a good use of their time? Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics, etc? Level of participation. Ease and comfort of experience. Level of effort required to make the most of the learning. Perceived practicability and potential for applying the learning. Typically ‘happy sheets’. Feedback forms based on subjective personal reaction to the training experience. Verbal reaction which can be noted and analysed. Post-training surveys or questionnaires. Online evaluation or grading by delegates. Subsequent verbal or written reports given by delegates to managers back at their jobs. Can be done immediately the training ends.

Very easy to obtain reaction feedback Feedback is not expensive to gather or to analyse for groups. Important to know that people were not upset or disappointed. Important that people give a positive impression when relating their experience to others who might be deciding whether to experience same. 2. Learning Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability Typically assessments or tests before and after the training. 40 Relatively simple to set up, but more investment and thought required than from before to after the learning experience: Did the trainees learn what what intended to be taught? Did the trainee experience what was intended for them to experience?

What is the extent of advancement or change in the trainees after the training, in the direction or area that was intended? Interview or observation can be used before and after although this is timeconsuming and can be inconsistent. Methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning. Measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale. Reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment. Hard-copy, electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible. reaction evaluation. Highly relevant and clearcut for certain training such as quantifiable or technical skills.

Less easy for more complex learning such as attitudinal development, which is famously difficult to assess. Cost escalates if systems are poorly designed, which increases work required to measure and analyse. 3. Behaviour Behaviour evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behaviour, and this can be immediately and several months after the training, depending on the situation: Did the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job? Were the relevant skills and knowledge used Was there noticeable and measurable change in the activity and performance of the trainees when back in their roles?

Was the change in behaviour and new level of knowledge sustained? Would the trainee be able Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change. Arbitrary snapshot assessments are not reliable because people change in different ways at different times. Assessments need to be subtle and ongoing, and then transferred to a suitable analysis tool. Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgement of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements. The opinion of the trainee, which is a relevant indicator, is also subjective and 41

Measurement of behaviour change is less easy to quantify and interpret than reaction and learning evaluation. Simple quick response systems unlikely to be adequate. Cooperation and skill of observers, typically linemanagers, are important factors, and difficult to control. Management and analysis of ongoing subtle assessments are difficult, and virtually impossible without a well-designed system from the beginning. Evaluation of implementation and application is an extremely important to transfer their learning to unreliable, and so needs to be another person? measured in a consistent defined way. Is the trainee aware of their change in behaviour, 360-degree feedback is knowledge, skill level? useful method nd need not be used before training, because respondents can make a judgement as to change after training, and this can be analysed for groups of respondents and trainees. Assessments can be designed around relevant performance scenarios, and specific key performance indicators or criteria. Online and electronic assessments are more difficult to incorporate assessments tend to be more successful when integrated within existing management and coaching protocols. Self-assessment can be useful, using carefully designed criteria and measurements. assessment – there is little point in a good reaction and good increase in capability if nothing changes back in the job, therefore evaluation in this area is vital, albeit challenging.

Behaviour change evaluation is possible given good support and involvement from line managers or trainees, so it is helpful to involve them from the start, and to identify benefits for them, which links to the level 4 evaluation below. 4. Results Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment resulting from the improved performance of the trainee – it is the acid test. Measures would typically be business or organisational key performance indicators, such as: Volumes, values, percentages, timescales, return on investment, and other quantifiable aspects of organisational performance, for instance; It is possible that many of these measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting. The challenge is to identify which and how relate to to the trainee’s input and influence.

Therefore it is important to identify and agree accountability and relevance with the trainee at the start of the training, so they understand what is to be measured. 42 Individually, results evaluation is not particularly difficult; across an entire organisation it becomes very much more challenging, not least because of the reliance on line-management, and the frequency and scale of changing structures, responsibilities and roles, which complicates the process of attributing clear accountability. Also, external factors greatly affect numbers of complaints, staff turnover, attrition, failures, wastage, noncompliance, quality ratings, achievement of standards and accreditations, growth, retention, etc. This process overlays normal good management practice it simply needs linking to the training input.

Failure to link to training input type and timing will greatly reduce the ease by which results can be attributed to the training. For senior people particularly, annual appraisals and ongoing agreement of key business objectives are integral to measuring business results derived from training. organisational and business performance, which cloud the true cause of good or poor results. Table: Kirkpatrick Model courtesy www. businessballs. com FORMATIVE EVALUATION Like every other function it is necessary to continuously improve the training program. It can be done through a) Pilot testing: It is a small scale preliminary training program run on some employees and the results are analysed before launching the entire training orogram. ) Questionnaires: In it questionnaires are administered to trainee/ trainers during/before/after the training program to gain knowledge about the program. c) Interviews: Interviews of trainers/trainees are conducted to gain insights into the training program. 43 CHAPTER – 5 DATA ANLYSIS, INTERPRETATIONS AND FINDINGS 44 1. How many times training is given to an employee per year in your organisation? Swaraj: 2 Other Companies: 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times As per requirements Concept of Man-days 1 5 5 2 3 5 5 Weighted Average: 3. 06 Interpretation and findings: As compared to industry standards Swaraj is providing less number of training sessions.

To make the employees more competent Swaraj can even double up the number of functional training programs. As we can see from the data some companies don’t fix the number and provide trainings as per requirement thus adding flexibility to their training programs. Some companies also use the concept of Man-days or Man-hours but after research from secondary sources I’ve found out that this concept focuses on just delivery of training rather than its effectiveness. 2. Number of days used for 1 training programme? Swaraj: Mininmum: 0-2 45 Maximum: 6-8 Minimum days 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 20 4 2 Maximum days 2 2 12 6 4 Minimum: Maximum: 0? 2 days 0? 2 days 2? 4 days 4? 6 days 2? 4 days 4? 6 days 6? 8 days 8? 0 days Interpretation and findings: For 76. 09% companies minimum time for a training program is 0-2 days and for 69. 2 percent of companies maximum time is between 4 to 8 days and both these values are similar to that of Swaraj. Hence Swaraj is devoting the standard industry time for a functional training program. 3. Does your organisation conduct formative evaluation? If yes, which methods do you employ for formative evaluation? ( Formative training is continuous process of improving training programme so that it could meet the requirements of trainees. ) 46 All the companies analyzed employ formative evaluation to improve the training program.

N/A= 0 Pilot testing Swaraj Score (SS)- 0 Questionnaire SS-5 Interview SS-4 4 2 0 2 4 10 2. 84 0 0 0 6 6 14 4. 30 12 0 4 2 0 8 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 2. 07 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 Pilot Testing Swaraj Other Companies Interview Interpretation and findings: Pilot testing is an expensive and complicated process and fewer organisations use this method. Questionnaire is the most popular method and it is cheap and easy to implement. Although certain insights can be missed through a questionnaire. This problem is solved in the method of interviews but they are relatively time consuming. Some organisations also opt for feedback forms to gain insights. 47

Swaraj uses questionnaire the most which is in accordance with the industry standards. Interview, another popular method in the industry is also used by Swaraj frequently. Swara does not need to employ new tools for formative evaluation. 4. What are the methods to identify the Training needs in your Organization? N/A= 0 Obsevation Swaraj Score (SS)- 0 Self-Nomination SS-4 Performance Appraisals SS-5 2 0 0 2 4 18 4. 30 3 0 5 7 6 5 3. 07 8 0 2 2 7 7 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 2. 80 Depends on Project 4 Requirements SS-5 Opinion Surveys SS-4 Critical Incident SS-2 6 6 0 0 6 8 8 3. 46 4 2 6 5 3 2. 34 0 3 9 8 0 2. 15 48 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 en cid In a l  ey itic rv Cr  S u nt on de ini ls en sa Op ep rai t D pp ec  A oj ce Pr an r m ion t rfo na Pe mi No lf? Se on ati rv se Ob Swaraj Other Companies Interpretation and findings: Almost every company uses a combination of techniques to identify the training needs. The most widely followed technique is that of performance appraisal. Many companies also prefer to customize their training programs according to the project requirements. Though observation is an effective method of training need identification but it requires a trained observer who can do careful observation of only the required competency. Swaraj also uses opinion surveys extensively but this method is rarely followed in the industry.

Self-Nomination is another widely used technique and it is believed that employee has the best knowledge of his competencies. In Swaraj most of the training needs are identified by the supervisors. Vedanta give Training Needs Identification forms to the employees which ask them to specify the technical and behavioral training(s) they want. These trainings are then approved by the respective reporting managers and HODs. Only the approved trainings are organised for the employees. 49 In Knorr Bremse training plan is made at the starting of the year. In it every employee of a particular department lists 3 training needs he or she feels they require. Suppose there are 60 employees hence 180 training needs are identified some of which are overlapping.

Out of these HOD identifies 24 needs and training of 2 needs is given every month. Swaraj can increase the participation of employees in designing the training program. Also managers can be trained to become observers for training need identification. 5. Which of the following, on job training methods is normally used in your organization? N/A= 0 Orientation Training Swaraj Score (SS)-0 Internship SS-4 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 2 2 1 8 9 3. 30 1 2 6 11 3 3. 15 N/A= 0 Job Instruction Training SS- 5 Job Rotation SS-2 Apprentice Training 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 0 0 2 8 16 4. 53 3 1 2 6 10 4 3. 19 2 1 50 8 9 6 3. 61 SS-4 Coaching SS-5 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 2 0 1 8 10 5 3. 5 Swaraj Other Companies Jo Or In Jo Co Ap b  b  te ien ac pr Ro In rn hin en ta str sh ta ti c ti o g ti o ip uc es n T ti o n hi ra n p ini ng Interpretation and findings: Orientation Training is an on-job training method usually devised for new employees. It helps the employee to learn the new job quickly and efficiently. It is recommended for Swaraj to begin such a training procedure. Other popular on-job training methods are Internship, Job instruction Training, Apprentice Training and Coaching. These methods are also used extensively in Swaraj. Job rotation is another on-job method widely used in industry.

This method is important for employee development and it is recommended to Swaraj that they give more importance to this method. 51 6. Which methods are employed for off job training? N/A= 0 Vestibule Testing Swaraj Score (SS)-3 Case Study SS-4 Lecture SS-5 Role Play SS-5 Programmed Instruction SS-1 4 2 0 8 6 6 3. 07 1 0 1 7 10 7 3. 76 2 0 4 8 8 4 3. 23 5 2 0 8 4 7 2. 96 4 3 1 5 9 4 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 2. 92 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 n io ct ru st   In ed m m ra og Pr y la  P le Ro e ur ct Le y ud g  St in se st Ca Te e  ul ib st Ve Swaraj Other Companies 52 Interpretation and findings: Swaraj makes extensive use of lectures, case studies and role-playing exercises for off-job training.

These are also the main off-job training practices followed in most of the companies. In addition to this Vestibule training is done in many companies which is training done in technical schools. Programmed Instruction is another method which rates high in industry and Swaraj is recommended to use this method. 7. To what level of effectiveness of Training measured in your Organization as per Kirkpatrick model? Swaraj Level 1- Reaction ( Feedback about how trainees felt about the training) Level 2- Learning {measuring whether trainees learn what trainers intended to be taught? } Level 3- Behavioural (measuring whether the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job? Level 4- Results (Measurement of ROI on Training) Yes No Yes Yes 26 26 0 0 Yes 26 0 Yes 22 4 All of the companies researched follow the Kirkpatrick Model up to level 3 and 22 out of 26 companies follow it up to level 4. All 4 need to be implemented for successful training program. 53 8. I) What methods your organization adopts to assess Training effectiveness at each level? At level 1: Reaction N/A= 0 Questionnaire Swaraj Score (SS)- 5 Interviews SS-0 Rating Scales SS-5 6 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 0 0 4 6 16 4. 46 1 1 1 4 8 2. 38 2 4 2 8 4 2. 61 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 Swaraj Other Companies e Qu s le ca g S tin Ra s w ie rv te re In ai nn io st 54

The most widely used method at level 1 is that of Questionnaire. Rating scales with an industry average of 2. 61 are also an effective method of gaining employee reaction towards training. Some companies also use interviews but this method is generally cumbersome and time consuming. Rating of interviews is less than 2. 5 and Swaraj need not employ any new method for evaluation at this level. Average time in days/ months after training at which evaluation is done for this level Swaraj: Within 90 days or 3 months Other Companies Immediately after training Within 5 days Within 10 days Within 15 days Within 1 month Within 2 months Within 3 months Not answered 12 2 3 0 1 0 4 4 55

Immediately Within 5 days Within 10 days Within 1 month Within 3 months More than half the companies who answered said that they do it immediately after training. It is recommended to Swaraj that they reduce the lag time for evaluation of this level. At level 2: Learning N/A= 0 Written Tests Swaraj Score (SS)-5 Performance Tests SS-0 Observations SS-0 Interviews SS-0 Personal Action Plan SS-5 12 14 7 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 0 0 4 7 8 3. 07 1 1 5 8 6 3. 07 2 1 3 9 4 2. 65 0 2 4 2 4 1. 69 0 4 0 6 4 2. 00 56 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 an Pl n  tio Ac al  on rs Pe ws ie rv te ns In io s at st rv  te se ce Ob an rm rfo sts Pe Te n  te rit W Swaraj Other Companies

Interpretation and findings: Most of the companies use written or performance tests for evaluation at this level. Performance tests are necessary to evaluate whether the employee can use the training in practical situations. Swaraj also make an extensive use of Personal Action Plan. Though this method is not used often in industry but it has been proved an effective method for evaluation at this level. Swaraj can employ the use of performance tests for this level. Average time in days/ months after training at which evaluation is done for this level Swaraj: 3 months Other Companies Immediately after training Within 5 days 57 2 2 Within 10 days Within 20 days Within 1 month Within 2 months Within 3 months Within 6 months Not answered 4 2 4 1 0 4 6

Immediately after training Within 5 days Within 10 days Within 20 days 1 month 2 month Interpretation and findings:70 percent of the companies conduct this step within 1 month of the training. Swaraj should reduce the lag time for this step. Trident conducts pre and post tests of candidates for evaluation at this level. At level 3: Behavioural N/A= 0 360? Feedback Swaraj Score (SS)-0 58 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 6 3 2 5 2 9 2. 88 Performance Appraisals SS-5 Focus Group SS-5 Observations SS-5 5 2 0 2 8 9 3. 27 8 2 4 6 6 0 2 2 0 2 4 10 8 3. 69 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 360 feedback Focus Group Swaraj Other Companies 3? D Column 3 Interpretation and findings: Many companies use 360? feedback forevaluating this level.

It has been seen though difficult to implement this is one of the best methods. Swaraj uses Appraisals, focus group and observation for this level. It was seen that focus group is not a preferred method in the rest of industry. Swaraj need not employ new methods for evaluation at this level. Average time in days/ months after training at which evaluation is done for this level Swaraj: 4-5 months Other Companies 59 Within 10 days Within 20 days Within 1 month Within 2 months Within 3 months Within 6 months Not answered 2 0 4 2 7 1 9 10 days 20 days 1 month 2 month 3 month 6 month Interpretation: 76% OF THE ORGANISATIONS DO THIS STEP WITHIN 1ST 3 MONTHS AFTER TRAINING Fiat does this step throughout the year.

At level 4: Results N/A= 0 Time Series Analysis Swaraj Score (SS)-0 Reduction in accidents 4 0 0 60 1 2 3 4 5 Weighted Average 12 2 4 2 2 0 1. 09 6 7 5 2. 31 SS-5 Improvement in Quality SS-5 Increase in productivity SS-5 Customer Satisfaction SS-0 9 0 2 8 2 1 1. 86 2 0 2 5 5 8 3. 60 0 0 0 3 9 10 4. 31 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 Swaraj Other Companies Interpretation and findings: Most of the companies who use this level use the parameters of reduction in accidents. Increase in quality and increase in productivity. Swaraj is at par as compared to industry standards. on cti fa t is nt e   Sa er em m v s to pro is Cu  Im aly s ty n ali  A Q u