World energy consumption in 2010: over 5% growth  Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism . Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. Onthe one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend.On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years (-1. 1%) or 130 Mtoe (Megaton oil equivalent), as a result of the financial and economic crisis (GDP drop by 0. 6% in 2009).  This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends. Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4. 7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels.In North America, Europe and CIS, consumptions shrank by 4. 5%, 5% and 8. 5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world’s largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world’s energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total. In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (474? 1018 J=132,000 TWh).This is equivalent to an average annual power consumption rate of 15 terawatts (1. 504? 1013 W) The potential for renewable energy is: solar energy 1600 EJ (444,000 TWh), wind power 600 EJ (167,000 TWh), geothermal energy 500 EJ (139,000 TWh), biomass 250 EJ (70,000 TWh), hydropower 50 EJ (14,000 TWh) and ocean energy 1 EJ (280 TWh).  World energy resources and consumption review the world energy resources and use. More than half of the energy has been consumed in the last two decades since the industrial revolution, despite advances in efficiency and sustainability. 9] According to IEA world statistics in four years (2004–2008) the world population increased 5%, annual CO2 emissions increased 10% and gross energy production increased 10%.  Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008 the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm ), hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt) and electricity 1% (269/20,181 TWh).  Most of the world’s energy resources are from the sun’s rays hitting earth.Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydro- or wave power. The term solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth’s atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6. 9% during a year—from 1412 W m? in early January to 1321 W m? 2 in early July, due to the Earth’s varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of 127,400,000 km2, the total energy rate is 174 petawatts (1. 740? 1017 W), plus or minus 3. 5%. This value is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the Earth’s surface.  The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0. YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2. 5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0. 6 to 3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. The total energy flux from the sun is 3. 8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources. |Contents | |1 Emissions | |2 Primary energy | |2. 1 Fossil fuels | |2. 2 Coal | 2. 3 Oil | |2. 4 Gas | |2. 5 Nuclear power | |2. 6 Renewable energy | |2. 6. 1 Hydropower | |2. 6. 2 Biomass and biofuels | |2. 6. 3 Wind power | |2. 6. 4 Solar power | |2. 6. 5 Geothermal | |3 By country | 4 By sector | |5 Alternative energy paths | |6 See also | |7 References | |8 Further reading | |9 External links | Emissions The global warming emissions are the most serious global environmental problem. Therefore many nations have signed the UN agreement to prevent a dangerous influence in the climate system. What is dangerous concentration is a subject of debate.Limiting global temperature rise at 2%, considered as a high risk level by Stockholm Environmental Institute, demands 75% decline in carbon emissions in the industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 mrd in 2050.  75% in 40 years is about 2% decrease every year. As 2011, the warming emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. There is a 25–30 years lag in the complete warming effect of emissions. Thus human activities have created already a 1,5 °C temperature rise (2006). 13] According to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch institute) for security civilization has to stop increase of emissions within a decade regardless of economy and population state (2009).  Primary energy |World energy and power supply (TWh) | | |Energy |Power | |1990 |102,569 |11,821 | |2000 |117,687 |15,395 | |2005 |133,602 |18,258 | |2008 |143,851 |20,181 | |Source: IEA/OECD | Energy by power source 2008 | | |TWh | % | |Oil |48,204 |33,5% | |Coal |38,497 |26,8% | |Gas |30,134 |20,9% | |Nuclear |8,283 |5,8% | |Hydro |3,208 |2,2% | |Other RE* |15,284 |10,6% | |Others |241 |0,2% | |Total |143,851 |100% | |Source: IEA *`=solar, wind, geothermal and biofuels | The United States Energy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. According to IEA total world energy supply was 102,569 TWh (1990); 117,687 TWh (2000); 133,602 TWh (2005) and 143,851 TWh (2008).World power generation was 11,821 TWh (1990); 15,395 TWh (2000); 18,258 TWh (2005) and 20,181 TWh (2008). Compared to power supply 20,181 TWh the power end use was only 16,819 TWh in 2008 including EU27: 2 857 TWh, China 2 883 TWh and USA 4 533 TWh. In 2008 energy use per person was in the USA 4,1 fold, EU 1,9 fold and Middle East 1,6 fold the world average and in China 87% and India 30% of the world average.  In 2008 energy supply by power source was oil 33. 5%, coal 26. 8%, gas 20. 8% (fossil 81%), renewable (hydro, solar, wind, geothermal power and biofuels) 12. 9%, nuclear 5. 8% and other 4%. Oil was the most popular energy fuel. Oil and coal combined represented over 60% of the world energy supply in 2008.Since the annual energy supply increase has been high, e. g. 2007–2008 4,461 TWh, compared to the total nuclear power end use 2,731 TWh environmental activists, like Greenpeace, support increase of energy efficiency and renewable energy capacity. These are also more and more addressed in the international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, like the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive and corresponding national plans. The global renewable energy supply increased from 2000 to 2008 in total 3,155 TWh, also more than the nuclear power use 2,731 TWh in 2008.  The energy resources below show the extensive reserves of renewable energy. Regional energy use (kWh/hab) | | |kWh/capita |Population (milj) | | | |Fuel type |Average power in TW | | | Fossil fuels Main article: Fossil fuel |Regional coal supply (TWh) and share 2009 (%) | | | The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. 1] According to the US Energy Information Administration’s 2006 estimate, the estimated 471. 8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world’s energy: Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. 24] Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U. S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world.  From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy, was the fastest growing fossil fuel.  Coal In 2000 coal was used in China 28%, other Asia 19%,North America 25% and the EU 14%.In 2009 the share of China was 47%.   Oil |Regional oil supply (TWh) and share 2009 (%) | | | The use of oil doubled in China during 2000–2009. In 2009 the consumption of oil was in the EU 1,6 fold and North America 2. 5 fold compared to China.   Gas |Regional gas supply (TWh) | | | In 2009 the world use of gas was 131% compared to year 2000. 66% of the this growth was outside EU, North America Latin America and Russia.Others include Middle East, Asia and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8. 6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000–2009.   Nuclear power As of December 2009, the world had 436 reactors.  Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.  Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1. 8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh with nuclear power meeting 13–14% of the world’s electricity demand.  Renewable energy Main article: Renewable energyIn 2008, Renewable Energy Policy Network for 21st Century reported that renewable energy supplied around 19% of the world’s energy consumption.  It should be noted, however, that 68% of energy consumption counted as “renewable” came in the form of “traditional biomass” energy, i. e. plant and animal matter for heat and cooking fire in developing regions.  The renewables sector has been growing significantly since the last years of the 20th century, and in 2009 the total new investment was estimated to have been 150 billion US dollars.  This resulted in an additional 80 GW of capacity during the year.  Hydropower Main article: hydropowerWorldwide hydroelectricity installed capacity reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of large plants, and 66 GW of small hydro installations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10. 9 GW was added by China, Brazil, and India during the year, but there was a much faster growth (8%) small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world’s small hydro plants are now located. China is the largest hydropower producer in the world, and continues to add capacity. In the Western world, although Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns. 42] The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydro because it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In British Columbia alone, the estimates are that micro hydro will be able to more than double electricity production in the province. Biomass and biofuels Main articles: biomass and biofuel Until the beginning of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain.A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.  World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 billion litres (8. 72 billion US gallons), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil.  Biodiesel increased by 85% to 3. 9 billion litres (1. 03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.  Wind power Main article: Wind power At the end of 2009, worldwide wind farm capacity was 157,900 MW, representing an increase of 31 percent during the year, and wind power supplied some 1. % of global electricity consumption.  Wind power accounts for approximately 19% of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland.  The United States is an important growth area and installed U. S. wind power capacity reached 25,170 MW at the end of 2008.  Solar power Main article: Solar energy The available solar energy resources are 3. 8 YJ/yr (120,000 TW). Less than 0. 02% of available resources are sufficient to entirely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power as an energy source. Assuming that our rate of usage in 2005 remains constant, we will run out of conventional oil in 2045, and coal in 2159.In practice, neither will actually run out as natural constraints will force production to decline as the remaining reserves dwindle.  The rate at which demand increases and reserves dwindle has been increasing dramatically because the rate of consumption is not constant. For example, if demand for oil doubled, reserves would not last as long. In addition, the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise while solar power becomes more economically viable. In 2007 grid-connected photovoltaic electricity was the fastest growing energy source, with installations of all photovoltaics increasing by 83% in 2009 to bring the total installed capacity to 15 GW.Nearly half of the increase was in Germany, which is now the world’s largest consumer of photovoltaic electricity (followed by Japan). Solar cell production increased by 50% in 2007, to 3,800 megawatts, and has been doubling every two years.  The consumption of solar hot water and solar space heating was estimated at 88 GWt (gigawatts of thermal power) in 2004. The heating of water for unglazed swimming pools is excluded.  Geothermal Main article: Geothermal power Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.  In the year 2004, 200 PJ (57 TWh) of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional 270 PJ of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating.In 2007, the world had a global capacity for 10 GW of electricity generation and an additional 28 GW of direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps.  Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to 100 GW.  By country See also: Energy by country and List of countries by energy consumption per capita Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with 6 kWh per person and United States with 11. 4 kWh per person.In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use is closer to 0. 7 kWh. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption with 0. 2 kWh per person. The US consumes 25% of the world’s energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4. 59.  The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5. 5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1. 3 billion people (19. 6% of the world population) is consuming energy at a rate of 1. 6 kWh per person. One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product. By sector World energy use per sector | | |2000 |2008 | |Industry | Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total.  The other 27% of the world’s energy is lost in energy transmission and generation.In 2005, global electricity consumption averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to generate 2 TW of electricity is approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%.  The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world’s electricity plants.  Total world energy use per sector was in 2008 industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.   Alternative energy paths Denmark and Germany have started to make investments in solar energy, despite their unfavorable geographic locations.Germany is now the largest consumer of photovoltaic cells in the world. Denmark and Germany have installed 3 GW and 17 GW of wind power respectively. In 2005, wind generated 18. 5% of all the electricity in Denmark.  Brazil invests in ethanol production from sugar cane, which is now a significant part of the transportation fuel in that country. Starting in 1965, France made large investments in nuclear power and to this date three quarters of its electricity comes from nuclear reactors.  Switzerland is planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000-watt society by 2050 and the United Kingdom is working towards a zero energy building standard for all new housing by 2016.